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Carson Lloyd

Law and Legal Studies, Birmingham City University

Thesis title:

A New Legal Infrastructure for Smart Cities: Lessons from Phoenix, Boston and Pittsburgh.

The term ‘smart city’ refers to the integration of technology within urban spaces to collect data to address economic, social, and environmental challenges (Vito Albino et al., 2015). US smart city initiatives have presented legal problems including: infringement of privacy rights (U.S. v. Jones (2012)), stifling the voice of residents (Frug and Barron, 2008), and limiting citizen participation in decision-making (Lefebvre, 1968). Cities innovative responses include: Boston’s “Smart Street” program to collect data through an agreement with Verizon; Phoenix’s ‘smart region’ (“the Connective”), connecting 22 cities and towns; and Pittsburgh’s Open Data Legislation (2014), with a process for identifying and approving datasets for publication.

Using these cities as examples due to their unique responses, this thesis will investigate the extent that smart cities development is limited by the legal infrastructures within which they operate. It will be the first systematic legal analysis in a smart city context, with findings relevant to initiatives across the US, and comparable efforts in the UK.

Keywords: Smart Cities, Privacy, Law, US Law, UK Law, Law and Technology, Smart City Law, US Constitutional Law, UK Constitutional Law, US Privacy Law

Research Area

  • Common Law, including Commercial Law
  • Law and Legal Studies
  • Public Law


About Carson: 



  • Carson Lloyd & Louis Myers, United States and United Kingdom: Comparative Recent Developments in Environmental Law (LL File No. 2022-021531, 2022) https://www.loc.gov/item/2022666109

Other Research Interests

  • Law and Technology
  • US Blockchain Law 
  • UK/US Environmental Law