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Daniel Boucher

Music, University of Birmingham

Thesis title:

Expressionist Opera in the Aftermath of the First World War and the Weimar Republic�

My doctoral thesis fundamentally revises the emergence of modern opera in the Weimar Republic (1919-1933). Drawing on an eclectic range of primary sources from this period, it pays new attention to how operas based on expressionist texts were seen as heralding the future of the genre. This point of entry goes directly against the standard trajectory of Weimar opera: that, by the early 1920s, expressionism was in crisis and swiftly fell out of fashion in favour of the supposedly more modern Zeitoper. Translated roughly as ‘opera of the times’, Zeitoper has long been emphasised as an answer to Germany’s Opernkrise (opera crisis) – both an aesthetic and economic crisis – with its archetype being Ernst Krenek’s Jonny spielt auf (1927). In contrast to the violent, hysterical and subjective topics of expressionist drama, Zeitoper offered a seemingly more objective portrayal of the spirit of the times, embracing everyday settings, popular music such as jazz, technology and mass media. As critics from the time obsessed over the notion of Zeitoper, so too have later scholars in their work on Weimar opera, with Jonny spielt auf oversaturating these accounts. Consequently, earlier achievements in modern opera, particularly those with an affinity to expressionism, have been left untold, resulting in a skewed, ahistorical account of interwar operatic trends in Germany.

In my thesis, I turn the standard narrative on its head by demonstrating how pre-Jonny expressionist operas were seen to be modern and as hope for the future of German opera on their own terms. My case studies in turn reveal new insights into the under-researched works and early careers of composers Paul Hindemith, Kurt Weill and Ernst Krenek. Collectively, they also highlight the intersection of opera and expressionism on a scope beyond the oft-cited Arnold Schoenberg’s Erwartung (1909) and Alban Berg’s Wozzeck (1925). Furthermore, I use these case studies as starting points for constructing a more holistic overview of Weimar Germany’s modern opera culture. I see this opera culture as constituted by the works themselves, their dissemination in turn fuelled by local, national and transnational networks of people and institutions, with surrounding discourses facilitating discussions of these works. My thesis will accordingly offer a fresh perspective on Weimar opera and stand as a key text for future studies.

Research Area

  • Music


Boucher, Daniel. 'Kurt Weill, Pantomime and Operatic Reform: The Case of Der Protagonist (1926)', in Diskontinuitäten. Zur Historiographie der Oper zwischen der Weimarer Republik und früher Bundesrepublik, eds., Tobias Janz and Benedetta Zucconi. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2024 (forthcoming).

Boucher, Daniel. 'Reclaiming Expressionism: Hindemith's Operatic Triptych'. The Musical Quarterly, Volume 106, Issue 3-4, Fall-Winter 2023. https://doi.org/10.1093/musqtl/gdae002 



  • 'Opera on the periphery: Orpheus und Eurydike in Kassel', AMS-SMT Joint Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 9-12 November 2023.
  • 'Opera on the periphery: Orpheus und Eurydike in Kassel', Royal Musical Association 59th Annual Conference, University of Nottingham, 14-16 September 2023.
  • 'Zeitopermania: Rewriting narratives of modern opera in Weimar Germany', Dis|continuities: Opera and its Historiography between the Weimar Republic and Early Post-War West Germany, Bonn Opera House, 18-21 May 2023.
  • 'Pantomime and modern opera: Kurt Weill's Der Protagonist (1926)', AMS-SEM-SMT Joint Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 10-13 November 2022.
  • 'Pantomime and modern opera: Kurt Weill's Der Protagonist (1926)', Royal Musical Association 58th Annual Conference, Durham University, 8-10 September 2022.
  • 'Self-promotion and operatic ambition in Kurt Weill's early biography', LCAHM Lightning Talks, University of Birmingham, 30 May 2022.
  • 'Kurt Weill, pantomime, and operatic reform: the case of Der Protagonist', BFE/RMA Research Students' Conference, University of Plymouth, 6-8 January 2022.
  • 'Hindemith's operatic triptych and discourses of expressionism in Weimar culture', KVNM-RMA Postgraduate Symposium, 3-4 July 2021
  • 'Hindemith's Sancta Susanna and networks of expressionism in Frankfurt', Junior Scholar Opera Conference, in association with the Transnational Opera Studies Conference, University of Bayreuth, 24-25 June 2021
  • 'Style as discourse: recasting expressionism in Weimar cutlure', Midlands4Cities Research Festival, 9 June 2021
  • 'Hindemith's Sancta Susanna and networks of expressionism in Frankfurt', Midlands Music Research Network Inaugural Conference, 19-20 April 2021
  • 'Opera and regional networks of expressionism in the Weimar Republic', Sounding Research Series, University of Birmingham, 17 March 2021
Chaired sessions
  • 'Western Art Music in the 21st Century', BFE/RMA Research Students' Conference, 6-8 January 2022

Other Research Interests

  • Opera
  • Art History
  • Philosophy
  • Fin-de-siècle Culture
  • Modernism
  • German Studies


  • Royal Musical Association
  • American Musicological Society
  • Midlands Music Research Network


  • DipABRSM Violin Performance (Distinction)
  • BA (Hons) Music, University of Nottingham
  • MRes Music, University of Nottingham (funded by the Midlands4Cities Masters Studentship)


  • Teaching Affiliate, University of Nottingham (Spring Semester 2023)
  • Teaching Associate, University of Birmingham (Spring Semester 2023)


  • Michael K. O'Rourke Best Publication Prize 2023 (College of Arts and Law, University of Birmingham)