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Nora Battermann

Archaeology, University of Leicester

Thesis title:

Revealing Reynard: a 10,000-year cultural biography of human-fox interactions.

The recent ‘animal turn’ within the humanities has led to the realisation that human-animal relationships can serve as a lens for meaningful understandings of past human societies. This potential is now being realised in archaeology, with a recognised need to shift attention away from “economically important” species (Sykes 2014). The fox has not previously been subjected to detailed scrutiny, even though it is often recovered archaeologically: 28% of southern English sites contain fox or fox/dog bones (there is morphological similarity with small dogs; Hambleton 2009). Where identified, interpretation usually emphasises economic importance (i.e. fur).

 This research project will unpick the complex cultural history of human-fox interactions in England to disclose how changing worldviews are reflected in the conceptualisation and treatment of animals. As a commensal species with crepuscular habits, the fox inhabits a liminal space: in Cartesian terms it can be seen to be ‘nature’ and ‘culture’, ‘wild’ and ‘domestic’. The ethology of the fox has generated a diverse range of human responses ranging from classification as vermin to incorporation into folk belief. The diversity of human responses to this animal makes it an ideal vehicle to explore the complexity and changing nature of human attitudes towards animals and ‘outsiders’. This interdisciplinary study will combine archaeology, biomolecular evidence and written sources (folklore, religious and philosophical). Taking a longue durée perspective will provide new insights into the impact of belief systems, cultural changes, and political and economic shifts on people’s conceptualisations of animals. The main research focus lies on zooarchaeological material, which will be compiled and enhanced by the re-analysis of archived material from Leicestershire to incorporate dietary stable isotope analysis.

Research Area

  • Archaeology


Battermann, N.M. (2019). ‘What does the fox say? Red foxes as a proxy for human engagement with the environment’, 40th Association for Environmental Archaeology Conference. University of Sheffield, 29 November – 1 December.

Battermann, N.M. (2019). Archaeozoological Analysis of the Fortified Settlement of Sand (10th Century AD, Lower Austria), by Constantina Saliari. Medieval Archaeology, 63(2), 467-468.

Battermann, N.M. (2018). AEA Autumn Conference 2018, Aarhus, Denmark. AEA Newsletter, 141, 4-5.

Battermann, N.M. (2018). ‘Outfoxed: Exploring the Phenomenon of the Urban Fox’, 13th International Council for Archaeozoology Conference. Middle East Technical University, 2-7 September.

Battermann, N.M. (2018). Spring Conference Review: Pests of Society Birmingham, 21st April 2018. AEA Newsletter, 139, 6-7.

Battermann, N.M. (2018). ‘Exotics and Empire’, Classical Association Annual Conference. University of Leicester, 6-9 April.

Battermann, N.M. (2017). ‘Student review of Grand Challenges in Environmental Archaeology’, Association for Environmental Archaeology: Student Blog, 13 December 2017. Available at: http://envarch.net/student-review-of-grand-challenges-in-environmental-archaeology-nora-battermann/ (accessed 15 December 2017).

Battermann, N.M. (2017). The cat among the Romans: Exploring human-cat relationships in rural Roman Britain. Unpublished MSc dissertation: University of York.

Battermann, N.M. (2017). Chickens and People: Past, Present and Future: 27th January 2017, University of Oxford Natural History Museum. AEA Newsletter, 135, 5.

Battermann, N.M. (2016). Exotics and Empire: An Investigation into Roman Conceptions of the 'Wild'. Unpublished BA dissertation: University of Leicester.



  • 12 December 2019: Workshop ‘Historical questions – zooarchaeological Answers’, Amsterdam (poster presentation)
  • 30 November - 1 December 2019: Association for Environmental Archaeology Annual Conference, Sheffield (15 minute paper)


  • 29 - 30 November 2018: Association for Environmental Archaeology Annual Conference, Aarhus (poster presentation)
  • 14 September 2018: Digital Arts and Humanities Summer School 'Unconference' (attendance)
  • 2 - 7 September 2018: International Council for Archaeozoology Conference, Ankara (15 minute paper)
  • 21 April 2018: Association for Environmental Archaeology Spring Meeting (poster presentation)
  • 9 April 2018: Classical Association Annual Conference, Leicester (15 minute paper presented in absentia)
  • 2 - 3 December 2017: Association for Environmental Archaeology Annual Conference, Edinburgh (attendance)
  • 27 January 2017: Chickens and People Conference (attendance)
  • 1 - 2 October 2016: Association for Environmental Archaeology Annual Conference, Rome (attendance)

Public Engagement & Impact


  • Placement with the Natural History Museum, Bird Collection, Tring (7 weeks)


  • AEA Student Poster Prize
  • Midlands3Cities Poster Prize 


  • Samuel & Rachel May Prize from the University of Leicester
  • Dame Rosemary Cramp Dissertation Prize from the University of Leicester
  • John Evans Dissertation Prize from the Association for Environmental Archaeology


  • Student assistant at Bradgate Park Fieldschool (2015-2019)
  • Second Year Archaeology Prize from the University of Leicester

Other Research Interests

  • Zooarchaeology
  • Roman archaeology
  • Exotic animals


Deutscher Archäologen Verband (2018-present)

Animals & Society Institute (2018-present)

International Council for Archaeozoology (2017-present)

Association of Environmental Archaeology (2016-present)